[Proj] Arc length of meridian, parametric latitude, elliptic functions
Charles Karney
ckarney at sarnoff.com
Thu Aug 5 10:44:03 EST 2010
A note on the arc length of the meridian, parametric latitude, elliptic
functions.
The arc length of the meridian can be written in terms of the geographic
or parametric (= reduced) latitudes. The conversion between the two
forms is simple enough. However when expressed in terms of elliptic
functions the relation becomes simpler still.
Consider an ellipse (x/a)^2 + (z/b)^2 = 1. Let
phi = geographic latitude
beta = parametric latitude
y = arc length from equator
k' = b/a
k = sqrt(1 - k'^2)
a*E = quarter meridian (E = 2nd complete elliptic integral)
The modulus for the elliptic integrals and functions here is k.
Define beta', phi', and y' as the complementary quantities:
beta + beta' = phi + phi' = pi/2
y + y' = a*E
Note that beta and phi and their complements have a dual relationship,
namely
tan(beta) = k' * tan(phi)
tan(phi') = k' * tan(beta')
Now, the parametric equations for the meridian are
x = a * sin(beta') = a * cos(phi) / sqrt(1 - k^2 * sin(phi)^2)
z = b * cos(beta') = b^2/a * sin(phi) / sqrt(1 - k^2 * sin(phi)^2)
Computing y' and y as integrals over beta' and phi
y' = a * integrate( (1 - k^2 * sin(beta')^2)^( 1/2), beta' )
y = b^2/a * integrate( (1 - k^2 * sin( phi )^2)^(-3/2), phi )
Introduce u such that (am = Jacobi amplitude function)
phi = am(u)
Define its complement by (K = 1st complete elliptic integral)
u + u' = K
Then it is easily verified that
beta' = am(u')
The equations for x, z above become
x = a * sn(u') = a * cd(u)
z = b * cn(u') = b^2/a * sd(u)
Similarly y' and y as integrals over u' and u
y' = a * integrate( dn(u')^2, u' ) = a * Eps(u')
y = b^2/a * integrate( nd(u )^2, u ) = a * (E - Eps(u'))
where Eps is the Jacobi's Epsilon function http://dlmf.nist.gov/22.16.ii
(Beware: the upper limit of Eq. 22.16.14 should be sn(x,k).) Note that
Eps(u') = E(beta')
(Here, E = 2nd incomplete elliptic integral.)
The interrelation implied by phi = am(u) and beta' = am(u') can be
expressed as
F(phi) + F(beta') = K
(F = 1st incomplete elliptic integral). http://dlmf.nist.gov/19.11.E9
gives the relation explicitly
tan(phi) = 1/(k' * tan(beta'))
tan(beta) = k' * tan(phi)
i.e., the standard definition of the parametric latitude.
Connection with the transverse Mercator projection:
y = Gauss-Krueger northing on the central meridian
u = Thompson northing on the central meridian
--Charles
--
Charles Karney <ckarney at sarnoff.com>
Sarnoff Corporation, Princeton, NJ 08543-5300
Tel: +1 609 734 2312
Fax: +1 609 734 2662
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