[Proj] Scale factor for Transverse Mercator
Mikael.Rittri at carmenta.com
Tue Sep 9 03:01:01 EDT 2008
Gerald I. Evenden wrote:
> Thus the combination of highest speed and best precision goes to Denmark.
Darn. And Sweden didn't do very well in the Olympic Games, either.
> When it gets to the bottom line, there seems to be little purpose in
> extending Transverse Mercator beyond its useful limits of 3 degrees.
> And if there is a demand to ultra wide extent then the spherical form
> will serve equally well.
I'm curious: what you say about scale factor variation would be equally true
for ordinary Mercator - at least if I tilt my head 90 degrees like this ;-)
So, would you say that an implementation of ordinary Mercator should
use ellipsoidal formulas only within 3 degrees of latitude from the
equator? And that farther away, one should use spherical Mercator
Speaking of spherical projection formulas, I'd like your opinion about
what kind of geodetic datum that can be associated with a spherical
1) An ellipsoid-shaped geodetic datum, or
2) A spherical geodetic datum, which is not a real datum at all, but
we have to pretend so temporarily in order to compute the projection, or
3) No datum at all, or
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mikael.rittri at carmenta.com
From: proj-bounces at lists.maptools.org [mailto:proj-bounces at lists.maptools.org] On Behalf Of Gerald I. Evenden
Sent: den 8 september 2008 03:51
To: PROJ.4 and general Projections Discussions
Subject: [Proj] Scale factor for Transverse Mercator
To go back to another discussion related to extending the longitude range of TM I also wanted to emphasize the problem of the scale factor at increasing distance from the central meridian (CM).
For reference I put two graphs on the my proj4 website:
In both cases, the x axis is in terms of easting from the CM with degrees from the CM along the equator scale at the top. The scale factor for TM is mainly a function of linear distance from the CM and northing or latitude has little effect.
The 500er.png figure show scale factor in the range of principle usage of TM and demonstrates that the unadjusted percentage of scale error is less than 0.15% over the standard 6 degree zones of most TM applications. Note that in Scandinavian regions where the zones have been significantly increased in terms of longitude but the meaningful factor of easting has not increased.
In order to distribute the scale error more evenly though out the zone the scale multiplier k_0=0.9996 and now the scale error ranges between -0.05% to 0.1%.
With larger scale errors arguments of using it for its conformal properties become rather meaningless and any projection with minimal visual distortion is usable.
ALSO, the spherical TM is quite useable at 40 degrees and gives nearly the same Cartesian values as well as nearly the same scale error.
When it gets to the bottom line, there seems to be little purpose in extending Transverse Mercator beyond its useful limits of 3 degrees. And if there is a demand to ultra wide extent then the spherical form will server equally well.
To extend to the ultimate limit of 90 degrees is a bit of a problem only solvable with time consuming software and with results that are so distorted as to be unrecognizable.
The whole religious complexion of the modern world is due to the absence from Jerusalem of a lunatic asylum.
-- Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) British psychologist _______________________________________________
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